Who Invented Eggs? A Look At The History Of Eggs - Berry Patch Farms (2024)

Eggs are a staple food in many cultures and cuisines around the world. Whether boiled, scrambled, poached or baked into delicious treats, eggs provide an excellent source of protein and nutrients. But have you ever wondered – who invented eggs in the first place?

If you’re short on time, here’s a quick answer to your question: Eggs were not invented by any one person or group. As a product of natural animal reproduction, chickens and other egg-laying creatures have been producing eggs long before humans came into the picture.

In this nearly 3,000 word article, we’ll explore the origins of egg-laying creatures, look at the history of egg use and production throughout human civilization, and examine some common myths and misconceptions around who ‘invented’ eggs.

The Evolution of Egg-Laying Creatures

Reptiles Among the First Egg-Layers

Reptiles were among the first animals to lay eggs with hard shells as a means of reproduction. This evolutionary adaptation likely arose over 300 million years ago during the Carboniferous period. Laying eggs with tough, leathery shells allowed reptiles to reproduce on land away from water, giving them an advantage over amphibians that still needed to lay eggs in water.

Some of the earliest amniotic egg fossils come from extinct synapsids known as pelycosaurs, close relatives of mammals and reptiles.

Over time, different groups of reptiles emerged that relied on egg-laying for reproduction. Turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and dinosaurs all lay eggs encased in calcium carbonate shells to protect the developing embryos.

The shells prevent the eggs from drying out on land while still allowing gas exchange. Different reptiles lay eggs in different ways – some bury them underground while others lay their eggs in nests. The number of eggs in a clutch also varies by species, with some tortoises known to lay a single egg at a time while certain snakes may lay up to 100 eggs in one clutch!

Birds as Modern Egg Producers

When dinosaurs evolved into birds over 100 million years ago during the Jurassic period, the ability to lay eggs was retained. In fact, birds took egg-laying to new heights through the evolution of the hard, calcium carbonate avian egg shell.

While reptile shells are leathery, bird egg shells are thicker and fully calcified to support the egg outside a mother’s body. The eggshell must be strong yet porous enough to allow air and moisture exchange for the developing chick embryo.

Different bird species have adapted their eggshell thickness and pore size to suit their nesting environments.

Today, birds are the most prolific egg layers on Earth. The evolutionary advantage of egg-laying is that birds can leave their eggs unattended in nests rather than carrying them or giving live birth. Most bird species lay more than one egg in a clutch, sometimes up to 20 eggs depending on the species!

Chickens are especially well-known for their egg-laying abilities, producing over 1,000 eggs per year on average. So next time you crack open an egg, consider the 300 million year history behind this marvel of evolutionary reproduction!

A History of Egg Use and Production

Eggs in Ancient Societies

Eggs have been an important food source for humans since prehistoric times. Paintings found in ancient Egyptian tombs depict images of people gathering eggs from wild bird nests dating back to 1400 BC.

Ancient Roman cuisine also made use of eggs, with several Roman recipes for omelets and egg custards surviving to this day. The ancient Chinese also valued eggs as both a food and ingredient in art, with decorated “hundred-year eggs” becoming culturally significant.

Developments in Commercial Egg Farming

As civilizations grew, the demand for eggs increased the need for domesticated egg production. Chickens were among the first animals domesticated by early civilizations in Asia over 8,000 years ago. Over time, keeping small flocks of chickens for their eggs became common practice for households in agrarian societies across Europe and Asia.

By the 19th century, the growing population and urbanization brought a need for larger scale and commercial egg farming. In the 1830s, egg farms with large hen houses began emerging in the northeastern United States to supply nearby cities with fresh eggs.

Advancements like the discovery of vitamins in the early 20th century increased demand and consumption of eggs even further.

According to the American Egg Board, commercial egg production grew 324% in the United States throughout the 20th century – from 1.9 billion dozen eggs in 1912 to approximately 8 billion dozen in 2000 [1]. Today, just 330 farms produce 75% of the commercially sold eggs in the US.

Modern egg farms can house hundreds of thousands of hens and implement mechanisms like conveyor belts to facilitate high-volume egg collection.

Modern Industrial Egg Production

Advancements continue to shape commercial egg farming in the 21st century. In 2020, approximately 1.5 million metric tons of eggs were produced in the United States alone [2]. As techniques like genetic selection produce increasingly efficient laying hens, a single bird can now lay over 300 eggs per year.

Most hens in commercial facilities are now kept in small cages or enclosure systems that control feeding, lighting, and environment to optimize egg production. However, concerns over animal welfare have also led to the growing popularity of cage-free and free-range eggs from hens housed in aviaries or with access to outdoor spaces.

Sustainability is also becoming a priority, with solar-powered farms and food waste-fed chickens emerging to reduce environmental impacts. Ultimately, the egg industry continues evolving to meet efficiency, ethical, and sustainability goals in the modern world.

Myths and Misconceptions

Debunking Claims of ‘Inventing’ Eggs

Throughout history, there have been many apocryphal tales of individuals or groups who supposedly “invented” eggs. However, the notion that any person or culture specifically created eggs is biologically impossible.

As animals that evolve from earlier egg-laying creatures, chickens and other birds have naturally always produced eggs.

Some common myths include:

  • An ancient Roman senator named Marcus Pastorius who supposedly brought the first chickens to Rome from Asia Minor, leading some to credit him with “inventing the chicken egg.”
  • 12th century English monk named Frater Robert who purportedly crossed wild jungle fowls from India with chickens already in Europe to create the modern hen, a claim lacking evidence.

While humans have selectively bred chickens over thousands of years to optimize egg production, the biological process predates these efforts. Despite claims to the contrary, no individual “invented” the egg itself, which evolved long before humans had any influence.

Other Egg-Related Folklore

Beyond purported individual inventors, eggs have spawned many myths and superstitions across cultures, including:

  • Decorating eggs as part of spring fertility festivals.
  • Beliefs that eggs laid on religious holidays have magical powers.
  • Claims that eggs can diagnose pregnancy by methods like floating in water.

While these and other folktales speak to the cultural significance of eggs, most lack a factual basis. With a history spanning millions of years since reptilian ancestors first laid soft-shelled eggs, much about the origin of bird and chicken eggs remains shrouded in mystery and misinformation.


In conclusion, while no single person or group can lay claim to ‘inventing’ eggs, we have seen how the natural biological processes of egg-laying creatures have been utilized by humans for millennia as an excellent and renewable food source.

From early hunter-gatherers opportunistically collecting wild eggs to the establishment of modern commercial hen houses housing millions of egg-laying chickens, eggs continue to nourish populations across the globe thanks to the fascinating evolutionary reproductive strategy of oviparous animals.

Who Invented Eggs? A Look At The History Of Eggs - Berry Patch Farms (2024)
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